Whiplash associated disorders remain the most common injury associated with motor vehicle accidents and a major cause of disability (Ritchie et al, 2013). The consequences for people suffering a whiplash injury can be substantial with an evidential impact on their daily living (Campbell et al, 2018). Still, the exact pathophysiology is not entirely clear.
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Physical activity levels can be assessed by two main types of measures: objective or subjective measures (Prince et al., 2008). Each measure has its own strengths and weaknesses confirming the need for the examination of their psychometric properties (Prince et al., 2008; Hills et al., 2014).
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Chronic pain, chronic primary pain, chronic secondary musculoskeletal pain, chronic postsurgical or posttraumatic pain,… What is the difference between these terms and which one contains knee osteoarthritis pain?
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There is something tempting about numbers and figures. They are ‘clear’, we believe them to be straightforward and helpful in untangling our complex world. In healthcare, both clinical and in research, we love quantitative measures.
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Haemophilia is a genetic disorder which is characterized by recurrent joint bleedings. Consequently, the majority of adult PwH suffer from very painful and invalidating hemophilic arthropathy. Although the complexity of joint pain has been studied in several chronic joint pain conditions, until present only very limited research has been done on joint pain within PwH. As a result, developing effective treatments for chronic pain in PwH has been clearly identified as a priority for research in bleeding disorders.
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It is a challenging time to stay active and to adapt our normal activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As working out in group or with a supervisor is not always possible, exercises at home gain popularity. We have never been walking so much as during the past year, as it was one of the only possibilities to have some social contact.
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Every time we experience something new, we are in the position of learning and memorising the new experience. Learning depends on several factors, including motivation, rewards, self-reflection, saliency, and repetition. One additional important aspect that seems crucial for learning is the presence of a prediction error.
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Before we were all held captive by the COVID-19 pandemic, another pandemic was (and still is) dominating our world. With high prevalence rates, some consider obesity the ‘real’ pandemic of the 21st century.
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Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Research by Kox M. et al. (1,2) evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and innate immune response.
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Over the past decades mechanism-based approach to pain management has been progressively underlined to achieve clinically meaningful improvements in pain outcomes.
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COVID-19, a highly infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan in China in December 2019, has definitely changed our behaviour. COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
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​In Europe, 1 in 5 people suffer from chronic pain, which means that we all know someone who is struggling with chronic pain complaints. This pain can be located in a specific region, such as migraine or chronic low back pain, but can also occur all over the body as is the case in fibromyalgia.
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Overwhelming evidence proves the notion that reduction in daily physical activity is a risk factor behind several chronic diseases (Lacombe et al., 2019) and that individuals who are more physically active have a lower risk for the development of chronic pain (Landmark et al., 2011).
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​To date thousands of rare diseases have been described in medical literature and still every day researchers worldwide are working to discover and better understand new unique diseases.
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​“Can you have a look at my back when you visit us tomorrow?” A friend sends me a text on Saturday. My phone rings, it’s my mother calling: “My ankle hurts. I am already unable to walk normally for the whole week now. What do you think it is?”
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Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) is a method of educating patients about the neurophysiology of pain. It aims to re-conceptualize pain from an indicator of damage to an interpretation of input signals by the brain and nervous system.
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n the acute phase after whiplash injury, most patients report pain and disability. Usually, these complaints reduce gradually within the first three months (1). Some patients continue to experience pain and disability and develop chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD).
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It is important to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) to improve treatments for NSLBP and individual treatment decisions in an early phase of low back pain and ultimately to prevent the development of chronic NSLBP.
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Non-specific musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, with point estimations up to 51% in Europe1,2. Percentages are higher in women than in men3 and most commonly represent pain in the lower back, shoulder, neck, hip or knee.
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COVID-19, a highly infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan in China in December 2019, has definitely changed our behaviour. COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The World Health Organisation has declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11th, 2020 due to the rapid increase in number of confirmed cases (Wang et al. 2020).
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It is well known that pain is a complex phenomenon with challenging treatment. The Department of Health and Human Services recently published a National Pain Strategy, highlighting the insufficient training in pain assessment and treatment for many clinicians.
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The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” (1). Pain is considered as a warning system for tissue damage.
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Despite the long history of usage in medicine, psychology, sociology and other sciences, the terms “moderator”, “mediator”, “predictor” and “prognostic factor” still seem to elicit discussions among researchers. Several authors have described how these terms are used interchangeably, neglecting important careful handling
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