Every time we experience something new, we are in the position of learning and memorising the new experience. Learning depends on several factors, including motivation, rewards, self-reflection, saliency, and repetition. One additional important aspect that seems crucial for learning is the presence of a prediction error.
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Before we were all held captive by the COVID-19 pandemic, another pandemic was (and still is) dominating our world. With high prevalence rates, some consider obesity the ‘real’ pandemic of the 21st century.
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Excessive or persistent proinflammatory cytokine production plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. Research by Kox M. et al. (1,2) evaluated the effects of a training program on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and innate immune response.
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Over the past decades mechanism-based approach to pain management has been progressively underlined to achieve clinically meaningful improvements in pain outcomes.
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COVID-19, a highly infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan in China in December 2019, has definitely changed our behaviour. COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.
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​In Europe, 1 in 5 people suffer from chronic pain, which means that we all know someone who is struggling with chronic pain complaints. This pain can be located in a specific region, such as migraine or chronic low back pain, but can also occur all over the body as is the case in fibromyalgia.
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Overwhelming evidence proves the notion that reduction in daily physical activity is a risk factor behind several chronic diseases (Lacombe et al., 2019) and that individuals who are more physically active have a lower risk for the development of chronic pain (Landmark et al., 2011).
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​To date thousands of rare diseases have been described in medical literature and still every day researchers worldwide are working to discover and better understand new unique diseases.
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​“Can you have a look at my back when you visit us tomorrow?” A friend sends me a text on Saturday. My phone rings, it’s my mother calling: “My ankle hurts. I am already unable to walk normally for the whole week now. What do you think it is?”
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Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) is a method of educating patients about the neurophysiology of pain. It aims to re-conceptualize pain from an indicator of damage to an interpretation of input signals by the brain and nervous system.
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n the acute phase after whiplash injury, most patients report pain and disability. Usually, these complaints reduce gradually within the first three months (1). Some patients continue to experience pain and disability and develop chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD).
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It is important to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) to improve treatments for NSLBP and individual treatment decisions in an early phase of low back pain and ultimately to prevent the development of chronic NSLBP.
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Non-specific musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, with point estimations up to 51% in Europe1,2. Percentages are higher in women than in men3 and most commonly represent pain in the lower back, shoulder, neck, hip or knee.
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COVID-19, a highly infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan in China in December 2019, has definitely changed our behaviour. COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The World Health Organisation has declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11th, 2020 due to the rapid increase in number of confirmed cases (Wang et al. 2020).
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It is well known that pain is a complex phenomenon with challenging treatment. The Department of Health and Human Services recently published a National Pain Strategy, highlighting the insufficient training in pain assessment and treatment for many clinicians.
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The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) defines pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage” (1). Pain is considered as a warning system for tissue damage.
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Despite the long history of usage in medicine, psychology, sociology and other sciences, the terms “moderator”, “mediator”, “predictor” and “prognostic factor” still seem to elicit discussions among researchers. Several authors have described how these terms are used interchangeably, neglecting important careful handling
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At the start of this research series, we were asking the clinical question as to why central sensitisation (CS) develops in some people and not in others. Is it something to do with their personal characteristics of sensitivity? Here, I want to outline what we did to begin investigating this and summarise for you the proposals we came up with.
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Can we train the chemo-brain?   September 23rd, 2020
“When I meet a friend on the street, I can’t even remember her name.”
 “Where did I leave my keys?”
 “Oh, darn I forgot my doctor’s appointment today!”
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There is no doubt that musculoskeletal pain is a complex multidimensional phenomenon. At present, musculoskeletal pain diagnosis is based primarily on signs and symptoms, sometimes combined with evidence of disease, structural damage, or injury.
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By now, it is a well-known fact that low back pain is a very common condition disabling a lot of people during the span of their lives, as well as that many of these people have to undergo lumbar surgery at one point or another.
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As a physiotherapist, I see many patients with low back pain (LBP). The type of intervention varies from patient to patient, and moderate treatment effects are observed. LBP is a well-known health problem with high socioeconomic costs (Hoy et al., 2012).
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Self‐efficacy (SE) is defined as an individual's confidence or belief in their ability to achieve behavioral goals in a specific field (Bandura, 1977). In the context of chronic pain SE refers to beliefs held by people with chronic pain that are able to carry out certain activities, even when experiencing pain.
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